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Carbon Trust | Net Zero

Updated: May 26, 2021

Net zero targets are announced almost daily and the term is now synonymous with climate leadership. But what do these targets mean and how can cities, regions, and companies achieve their net zero aspirations?


What does net zero mean?


For nations:

A national net zero target requires deep reductions in emissions, with any remaining sources being removed from the atmosphere with greenhouse gas removals.

Country-level emissions accounting across the world is conducted on a territorial basis, with each country only counting emissions that directly arise from activity within their geographical boundary. This prevents double counting of emissions and also more closely links to levers available at the country level to reduce emissions. The UK, for example, has set a net zero target for 2050, that relates to its territorial (or production) emissions.


For cities and regions:

There isn’t a globally recognised definition of a net zero city or region. We use the following working definition of a net zero city:

‘A net-zero city or region will set and pursue an ambitious 1.5°C-aligned science-based target for all emissions sources covered within the BASIC+ reporting level of the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories (GPC). Any remaining hard-to-decarbonise emissions can be compensated with certified greenhouse gas removal (GGR).’

The BASIC+ level of the GPC includes all Scope 1 and 2 emissions, plus selected Scope 3 emissions, specifically exported waste, T&D and transportation.

We believe it is reasonable for the ‘Other Scope 3 sources’ (such as GHG emissions embodied in investments, water, food and construction materials) to be excluded from the definition of a net zero city. However, we believe a net zero city should pursue all possible efforts to influence and reduce the remaining Scope 3 emissions not captured within the BASIC+ framework.


For corporates:

Since the we proposed a definition of net zero in our Insight published in 2019, the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi) has defined net zero targets for corporates as follows:

‘To reach a state of net zero emissions for companies implies two conditions:
  1. To achieve a scale of value-chain emission reductions consistent with the depth of abatement achieved in pathways that limit warming to 1.5°C with no or limited overshoot and;

  2. To neutralise the impact of any source of residual emissions that remains unfeasible to be eliminated by permanently removing an equivalent amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide.’


The SBTi is also consulting on draft criteria for assessing corporate net zero targets and is planning to publish the final criteria, with associated guidance, ahead of COP26 in November 2021.


Why net zero matters

The widespread global adoption of net zero targets is an important lever for driving ambitious climate action. Deep cuts to emissions in line with a 1.5°C pathway and the permanent removal of any remaining greenhouse gases will be needed in order to achieve these targets – both of which are critical to addressing climate change.

It will undoubtedly require innovation and we are working with a wide range of organisations on projects that are likely to play a significant role in helping achieve net zero ambitions, such as the Flexibility in Great Britain project.

We are working with corporates, institutions and governments around the world to help set rigorous net zero targets and support their delivery.


Original Source: The Carbon Trust

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